Tools Needed To Complete Debris Removal
- dump trailer or dumpster company on speed dial
- mesh tarp (for covering the debris load if using your own dump trailer or dump truck)
- 16′ ratchet straps (to properly cover and secure the load of debris prior to hauling it away)
- large flat shovel (to use as a dustpan)
- mini-sledge hammer
- shop vac
- reciprocating saw (sawzall)
- gas powered generator
- 5 gallon gas can (so your generator doesn’t run out while you’re on the job)
- portable lights (for lighting up basements and attics)
- extension cords
- 1-2 boxes of “contractor grade” garbage bags
- 2-4 heavy duty garbage cans
- 25-100 pack of dust masks
- first aid kit (just in case!!)
Videos Showing Examples of Removing Debris for a Property Preservation Work Order
Examples of How the Debris Quantity is Calculated in the Property Preservation Industry
Debris and Personal Property Sizing Table
Cubic Yard Calculator
FHA’s Attachment Regarding Debris Removal Requirements
A Mortgagee may expend up to the amount listed in this attachment for debris removal without prior written approval from the M&M contractor. Costs such as labor hours, dump fees, and transportation (e.g., fuel, mileage, truck rental) should not be claimed in addition to the reimbursable amount as these costs are incorporated in the per unit allowable cost for debris removal. Before and after photographs are required.
The Department acknowledges that it is a common business practice of many property preservation contractors to wait until they have collected debris from several properties before taking the debris to an appropriate facility for disposal and that not all disposal facilities provide printed receipts. Therefore, where such receipts are not available, Mortgagees will not automatically be denied reimbursement for debris removal. However, the Department must be able to confirm the type and amount of debris that was removed and that all debris was disposed of properly. Therefore, Mortgagees must maintain a complete audit trail which will include: the name, address, and phone number of each company providing the debris removal service, the FHA case number and address of the property, the date of the disposal, the number of cubic yards of debris disposed and a listing of any items that are not ordinary household debris which would include health and safety items, tires, appliances, cars, trucks, boats, batteries, etc. The documentation must also provide the name, address and telephone number of all disposal facilities used.
If a dumpster was brought to the property, the supporting information must identify the date the dumpster was delivered to the property, the date it was removed, and the name, address and telephone number of the company supplying the dumpster.
Mortgagees should remove all exterior debris, including abandoned vehicles, in accordance with applicable local laws. Items of personal property that are securely affixed and in good condition, such as a swing set or dog-house/kennel should not be removed if they add value to the property. However, if personal property is in disrepair or determined to be a health and safety hazard, it should be removed.
Mortgagees must maintain, in the claim file, salvage yard and dump fee receipts that substantiate all claimed debris removal. The documentation must include the date, address of the property(s) for which the debris is being dumped, number of yards dumped, and the number and type of appliances (e.g., refrigerators, stoves, dishwashers) being dumped or disposed. The receipt must indicate the name of the dump to verify that the debris has been disposed of legally.
Before and after photographs are required to support all required debris removal. Photographs should be dated and the property address indicated. If photographs are not available as documentation of required debris removal, HUD will not reimburse the Mortgagee for associated costs.
II. Interior (Including Attic, Basement, and Storage Spaces)
Mortgagees are not to remove interior debris except for:
- Debris that constitutes a health or safety hazard;
- Debris that has or is likely to result in issuance of a code violation, a fine and/or lien;
- Debris required to be removed as part of an eviction by local law enforcement or crews under the control and direction of local law enforcement where the Mortgagee has no control over the timing of removal.
If the clean‑out of a property’s interior is necessary, the clean-out should include removal and proper disposal of debris including:
- Shabby or torn carpet;
- Dilapidated, unsafe flooring;
- Health and safety hazards (See Hazardous Waste Removal, below), including dead animals; and personal effects (e.g., furniture, clothing, dishes, utensils), unless otherwise instructed by local law enforcement during an eviction.
Before and after photographs are required to document the existence of personal property items and all required debris removal. Photographs should be dated and the property address indicated. If photographs are not available as documentation of required debris removal, HUD will not reimburse the Mortgagee for associated costs.
III. Hazardous Waste Removal
Mortgagees are required to remove unhealthy or hazardous materials from the exterior and interior of properties prior to conveyance and should adhere to local municipal health and safety requirements with respect to proper disposal of said materials. For additional clarification, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website lists common household items containing potentially hazardous ingredients that might be found in a garage, basement, or other storage space (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/hhw-list.htm). Further, as a matter of health and safety, refrigerators should be unplugged and refrigerator doors should be removed and stored if required by applicable state or local law or ordinance.
Materials considered unhealthy or hazardous that should be removed prior to conveyance include but are not limited to:
- Decaying food or other organic matter;
- Dead animals and animal feces;
- Pest infestations (see below);
- Broken glass or other sharp objects;
- Large containers of liquids;
- Large quantities of paint or paint products;
- Paints or solvents in any amount stored in or near papers, fabrics or other flammable materials; and
- Highly flammable chemicals (e.g., solvents, paint thinners, gasoline, motor oil and motor additives, etc.).
The following products, if found in quantities consistent with normal household use, are not considered hazardous waste for purposes of debris removal under this section.
- Non-flammable materials including reasonable quantities of paper and fabrics (unless stored near flammable chemicals);
- Common cleaning products and household chemicals such as insect repellent;
- Up to five gallons of paint and paint products;
- Lawn and garden products and fertilizers; and
- Pool chemicals.
EPA guidelines allow paint cans to be disposed of with regular debris, once treated. Paint is treated by brushing the paint onto cardboard or newspaper, allowing the empty can to dry with the lid off, or by adding absorbent material such as kitty litter, shredded newspaper, sand, or sawdust directly into the latex paint can. Dried paint may then be thrown in the trash and removed from the property as regular debris.
The M&M contractor must approve any costs associated with disposal action(s) required by a municipality.
Refrigerators need to be handled with great care because they can be extremely dangerous. You should unplug them immediately upon entering the property. Depending on the regulations of the state in which you operate, you may also be required to remove the door. Many states operate refrigerator-recycling programs. Research these in advance. In some areas of America, a representative will collect the refrigerator from site, while in other areas you will be required to take the item directly to the collection facility. Contact your local landfill for information about the appropriate steps to take.
IV. Bug and/or Pest Infestation
If, on the initial inspection, the Mortgagee finds evidence of pests (e.g., roaches, water bugs, mice, rats) that does not prevent clean-out of debris or is not a health or safety hazard, the Mortgagee may use over-the-counter products to exterminate the bugs. If the property is found to be infested with pests that constitute a health or safety hazard or prevent the clean-out or debris removal, the Mortgagee may utilize a professional Pest Control Service. A flea infestation does not require photographic evidence.
V. Personal Property and Debris Removal during Evictions
Some jurisdictions require a legal eviction to remove personal property from a vacant house. Mortgagees should follow local code and laws and exercise good judgment when distinguishing between personal property and debris. If Mortgagees have questions regarding personal property and debris, they should consult local counsel. If a Mortgagee is required by local law to remove trash and debris from the property as part of an eviction and the Mortgagee has no control over the timing of removal, the costs for removing the items are considered eviction expenses and are not subject to the debris removal cost guidelines, the maximum securing fee or the overall allowable cost limit. These costs are to be claimed as man-hours and should be deemed by the M&M contractor to be reasonable and customary for services performed in the area.
In most circumstances, no more than four people should be necessary to complete an eviction for a townhouse or condominium and six people for a single family detached dwelling. If local law provides that a specific number of people should be provided, or if the law enforcement official conducting the eviction identifies a need for additional people to be present at the time of the eviction, this information must be documented in the claim review file. Similarly, if local or state law requires that a service be performed within a certain time frame or subject to specific removal or storage requirements, those requirements must be fully documented in the claim review file and costs are not subject to the allowable cost limit for the jurisdiction.
The removal of curbside debris following an eviction will be reimbursed as man-hours. No more than four man-hours at $20 per man-hour, per person at the scheduled eviction will be reimbursed for the removal and disposal of eviction debris. Dump fees and storage fees (as appropriate for the jurisdiction) will also be reimbursed.
If crews show up for canceled or re-scheduled evictions, the Mortgagee is only eligible to claim a maximum of one man-hour at $20 of labor per person.
B) Photographic Evidence
Photographs are required to support all personal property/debris removed from a property as part of an eviction. Eviction costs should be entered in item 305 of Part D of the claim form.
VI. Over-allowable Requests for Debris Removal Services
Mortgagees should obtain prior written approval from the M&M contractor for any debris removal expense that exceeds the cost per cubic yard or the total allowable number of yards indicated in the schedule. When requesting approval to exceed the debris removal cost limit, the Mortgagee should obtain two independent competitive bids. If the Mortgagee utilizes a field service company, that firm may provide one of the bids. The Mortgagee should obtain a second independent and competitive bid and submit the bids to the appropriate M&M contractor with an over-allowable request. Field service companies or contractors may not submit second bids directly to the M&M contractor. This violates the integrity of HUD’s requirement for an independent and competitive bid process.
The bids should specify the types and location of the debris, the number of cubic yards, and include photographic documentation. Any additional costs of non-general refuse should be factored into the final bid and clearly indicated for M&M contractor review. All second bids will be on the bidding company’s letterhead and will include the bidder’s name, address and telephone number. Upon receipt of the bids, the Mortgagee should date stamp them and attach them to a Request to Exceed Cost Limit for Preservation and Protection. Additionally, the Mortgagee should identify all other preservation and protection expenses to-date so that the M&M contractor will know if and by how much the Mortgagee will exceed the maximum allowable cost limit. Debris removed per local code is also subject to the established cost limits on debris removal. Mortgagees will not be reimbursed for the cost of obtaining bids.
Upon receipt of the required bids, the M&M contractor will, within five business days, take one of the following actions:
- Notify the Mortgagee to accept one of the bids submitted;
- Reject both bids and provide the Mortgagee with examples of similar work that has been recently performed at a more reasonable cost,
- Notify the Mortgagee to convey the property without removing the debris.
Keeping Track of the Junk
It’s important that you track how much junk you take out of the property but, for obvious reasons, this is much easier said than done. It’s not going to be possible to count every single item you remove; as such, you will need to rely on your powers of estimation to keep tabs on how much you haul away. One of the best ways to do this, is to calculate the amount of junk you extract in relation to the size of the truck you put it in. For example, if you are using a 10’ truck (which has a capacity of 15 cubic yards) and you fill it 80% full of trash, you can safely estimate that you have extracted around 12 cubic yards of junk. Don’t worry, I’m not expecting you to know the cubic capacity of the various trucks that are available. I have included a set of U-Haul charts that contain a list of the cubic yard capacity of each vehicle rental that is available. Keep this handy so that you can keep track of how much junk you remove from the property; you will need this for bid and invoicing purposes. If you are deciding between two vehicles for the purposes of removing junk, always go with the highest. The cost between the two is usually pretty negligible, around $10-$20 and it’s much cheaper than having to pay two visits or, worse, having to hire a vehicle for a second day because you didn’t manage to fit everything in the truck on the first visit.
If all the above information and tips teach you one thing, it’s that you absolutely must go and visit the property before you submit a bid for your cleaning services. Without seeing the severity of the junk and the condition the property is in, you have no idea what truck to hire, how many people you’ll need and how much time it is going to take you to clear the place out. It is only through seeing the place first-hand that you can generate a realistic bid.
Your Local Landfill
Every municipality operates different rules and regulations pertaining to household waste. However, the basic rules are pretty similar across the board. Below, you will find a general overview of prohibited waste and acceptable waste. This is intended as a basic guide only, make sure you research what the specific regulations are in the area in which you operate in advance of formulating a bid.
Prohibited Waste Items
- Regulated hazardous waste
- Polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) or any waste that includes PCBs
- Radioactive wastes
- Infectious wastes
- Commercial quantities of liquid waste
- Special wastes
- Friable asbestos containing wastes
If you come across any of the items listed above when you’re cleaning out a property, and you may need to enlist the services of a firm that specialize in the removal of prohibited waste items. You will find such companies by performing a basic online search for “hazardous waste disposal services” or “environmental services.”
Conditionally Acceptable Waste
The items that are listed below will usually be accepted at landfills providing they are handled in an appropriate manner, and certain criteria are met. These are as follows:
- Non‐friable asbestos-containing wastes are accepted at some landfills providing that they have been handled in an appropriate manner. Contact you landfill to verify the details.
- Industrial waste and/or contaminated commercial products may sometimes be accepted but you will usually be required to obtain approval in advance to ensure that you comply with the relevant requirements.
- Containers that are in excess of five gallons will only be accepted if they are open, empty, or contain less than an inch of dried waste that is officially unusable.
- Some landfills will take refrigerators providing you have proof that the CFC has been removed in accordance with EPA requirements.
- Some landfills will accept tires.
- Propane and Freon containers may be accepted providing the values have been removed.
- Dead animals and animal parts will require special handling. Check with the landfill in advance.